Complex brain functions involve interactions between different brain regions and it is believed that alterations in these network connections may be involved in neurological disorders. In this review written by M.M. Shafi, M.B. Westover, M.D. Fox and A. Pascual-Leone, the authors address how the combination of neuroimaging with noninvasive brain stimulation can be used to study functional connectivity networks and how they can selectively be manipulated. Learn about the potential therapeutic applications of the combination of these techniques….
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In this figure 5 (click to enlarge): BOLD fMRI and EEG responses to TMS. (A) Bold fMRI response to rTMS of left dorsal premotor cortex. Six transverse sections showing activity changes in the cingulate gyrus, ventral premotor cortex, auditory cortex, caudate nucleus, left posterior temporal lobe, medial geniculate and cerebellum. (Modified with permission from Bestmann et al, 2005). (B) EEG response to single-pulse stimulation of left sensorimotor cortex. Top panels: Scalp potential with head shown as a two dimensional projection. The contour lines depict constant potentials; positive potentials are red, negative potentials are blue. Bottom panels: Current-density distributions: the calculated current-density at each time point is depicted as a percentage of the maximum current-density at that time point. For this subject, at 11 ms, the activation had spread from below the coil center to involve the surrounding frontal and parietal cortices. Contralateral activation emerged at 22 ms, and peaked at 24 ms. (Modified with permission from Komssi et al, 2002.) See full-text article for full references.